The Convention provides for a control mechanism on the States to make sure that they implement at a national level the provisions laid down in the text. For that purpose, the UN Committee on the right of the child was set up, with its headquarters in Geneva, made up of 18 people with a specific preparation and experience, elected by the signatory States with the task of examining the progress made by the individual States. For that purpose, each State shall submit to the Committee a periodical report – within 2 years from the ratification of the Convention and then every 5 years – concerning the adopted measures.
The preparation of the Report is a long process of study and analysis, by numerous institutional and non-institutional parties, concerning applicable legislation, statistical data, successful projects, the different bilateral and multilateral initiatives of international cooperation made by Italy.
In Italy, Presidential Decree no. 103 of 14 May 2007 provides that the Government submits the Report on the basis of the template/draft previously prepared by the National Observatory for childhood and adolescence. Then, the draft report is prepared in its final version and sent to the Interministerial Committee for human rights (CIDU) at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and international cooperation and then sent to the UN Committee, which will then evaluate it.
The evaluation procedure provides that the Committee sets the dates of the Plenary session and the Pre-session. During the Pre-session the Committee meets, behind closed doors, the NGO delegations and the coalitions which have sent written information, in the form of alternative or supplementary Reports, from which recommendations on critical topics emerge.
Before the plenary Session, the UN Committee sends the Government the so-called List of issues where it asks to specify and examine more thoroughly some issues. The State must answer in writing and within the set deadlines to all the requests and, in the plenary Session, the state of implementation of the Convention in the State party is discussed on the basis of the governmental Report, any supplementary Reports made by the NGOs and the answers given to the List of Issues. In the final Remarks, the UN Committee underlines the existing weaknesses, prompting actions where the situation is not consistent with the provisions of the Convention.
In 2017 Italy submitted the V and VI Report on the state of implementation of the Convention, illustrating the policies and programmes concerning childhood and adolescence implemented by the Italian Government in the period ranging between 2008 and 2016. In January 2019 Italy attended in Geneva the dialogue session expressly dedicated to the discussion of the main issues identified by the Committee itself, which then adopted the relevant Final Remarks.
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